PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES OF TETANUS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE-2018-2019
TETANUS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE-2018-2019
The global incidence of tetanus is approximately one million cases annually. Mortality rates attributable may reach 100% in the absence of appropriate medical treatment. The study intends to outline the treatment outcome of tetanus patients in our environment.
The study was conducted at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Connaught Hospital, University of Sierra Leone Teaching Hospital Complex. The study was designed as a retrospective study of patients who presented with tetanus between 1st January 2018 and 31st December 2019. All the case notes/files of tetanus cases were retrieved from the hospital medical records unit. A research proforma was designed and used to extract information regarding the Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients, type of tetanus, mechanism of injury, the portal of entry, type of wounds, symptoms at presentation (prodromal and classic symptoms), duration of hospital stay, outcomes and complications.
The findings from this study revealed a hospital prevalence of tetanus of 0.67%, male preponderance (84.6%); mean age of patients was 24 years; 61.5% of patients had generalized tetanus. The mean incubation period was 7 days; the mean period of onset was 5.5 days; 76.37% of patients were unimmunized. The mortality rate was 23.1% and 46.2% had dysautonomia.
This study shows that tetanus is still prevalent in Sierra Leone and affects mainly young males. Despite the satisfactory patient outcomes in terms of mortality, there is still a need for improved support by the government to enhance hospital or clinical services nationwide.
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